Migration (API)

If you prefer to set up and run the migrations programmatically, we provide the Migrator API for that.

This section covers how to perform migrations without the need to install and use the CLI tool.

Preparation

Add the cargo dependency sea-orm-migration:

// Cargo.toml

...

[dependencies]
futures = "0.3.21"
sea-orm = { version = "^0.9.0", features = [ "sqlx-mysql", "runtime-async-std-native-tls", "macros" ] }
+ sea-orm-migration = "^0.9.0"

...

Create a module named migrator:

#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
// src/main.rs

+ mod migrator;

use futures::executor::block_on;
use sea_orm::{ConnectionTrait, Database, DbBackend, DbErr, Statement};

...
}
#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
// src/migrator/mod.rs (create new file)

use sea_orm_migration::prelude::*;

pub struct Migrator;

#[async_trait::async_trait]
impl MigratorTrait for Migrator {
    fn migrations() -> Vec<Box<dyn MigrationTrait>> {
        vec![]
    }
}
}

Define the migrations

Define a Migration in a file and include it in migrator/mod.rs:

The filename must follow the format m<date>_<6-digit-index>_<description>.rs.

For more information about defining migrations, read the documentation of SchemaManager.

#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
// src/migrator/m20220602_000001_create_bakery_table.rs (create new file)

use sea_orm_migration::prelude::*;

pub struct Migration;

impl MigrationName for Migration {
    fn name(&self) -> &str {
        "m_20220602_000001_create_bakery_table"
    }
}

#[async_trait::async_trait]
impl MigrationTrait for Migration {
    // Define how to apply this migration: Create the Bakery table.
    async fn up(&self, manager: &SchemaManager) -> Result<(), DbErr> {
        manager
            .create_table(
                Table::create()
                    .table(Bakery::Table)
                    .col(
                        ColumnDef::new(Bakery::Id)
                            .integer()
                            .not_null()
                            .auto_increment()
                            .primary_key(),
                    )
                    .col(ColumnDef::new(Bakery::Name).string().not_null())
                    .col(ColumnDef::new(Bakery::ProfitMargin).double().not_null())
                    .to_owned(),
            )
            .await
    }

    // Define how to rollback this migration: Drop the Bakery table.
    async fn down(&self, manager: &SchemaManager) -> Result<(), DbErr> {
        manager
            .drop_table(Table::drop().table(Bakery::Table).to_owned())
            .await
    }
}

#[derive(Iden)]
pub enum Bakery {
    Table,
    Id,
    Name,
    ProfitMargin,
}
}
#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
// src/migrator/m20220602_000002_create_chef_table.rs (create new file)

use sea_orm_migration::prelude::*;

use super::m20220602_000001_create_bakery_table::Bakery;

pub struct Migration;

impl MigrationName for Migration {
    fn name(&self) -> &str {
        "m_20220602_000002_create_chef_table"
    }
}

#[async_trait::async_trait]
impl MigrationTrait for Migration {
    // Define how to apply this migration: Create the Chef table.
    async fn up(&self, manager: &SchemaManager) -> Result<(), DbErr> {
        manager
            .create_table(
                Table::create()
                    .table(Chef::Table)
                    .col(
                        ColumnDef::new(Chef::Id)
                            .integer()
                            .not_null()
                            .auto_increment()
                            .primary_key(),
                    )
                    .col(ColumnDef::new(Chef::Name).string().not_null())
                    .col(ColumnDef::new(Chef::ContactDetails).json())
                    .col(ColumnDef::new(Chef::BakeryId).integer().not_null())
                    .foreign_key(
                        ForeignKey::create()
                            .name("fk-chef-bakery_id")
                            .from(Chef::Table, Chef::BakeryId)
                            .to(Bakery::Table, Bakery::Id),
                    )
                    .to_owned(),
            )
            .await
    }

    // Define how to rollback this migration: Drop the Chef table.
    async fn down(&self, manager: &SchemaManager) -> Result<(), DbErr> {
        manager
            .drop_table(Table::drop().table(Chef::Table).to_owned())
            .await
    }
}

#[derive(Iden)]
pub enum Chef {
    Table,
    Id,
    Name,
    ContactDetails,
    BakeryId,
}
}
#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
// src/migrator/mod.rs

use sea_orm_migration::prelude::*;

+ mod m20220602_000001_create_bakery_table;
+ mod m20220602_000002_create_chef_table;

pub struct Migrator;

#[async_trait::async_trait]
impl MigratorTrait for Migrator {
    fn migrations() -> Vec<Box<dyn MigrationTrait>> {
        vec![
+           Box::new(m20220602_000001_create_bakery_table::Migration),
+           Box::new(m20220602_000002_create_chef_table::Migration),
        ]
    }
}
}

Perform the migrations

Use the MigratorTrait API to perform the migrations. Verify the correctness of the database schema with SchemaManager.

#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
// src/main.rs

...

+ use sea_orm_migration::prelude::*;

...

async fn run() -> Result<(), DbErr> {

    ...

+   let schema_manager = SchemaManager::new(db); // To investigate the schema

+   Migrator::refresh(db).await?;
+   assert!(schema_manager.has_table("bakery").await?);
+   assert!(schema_manager.has_table("chef").await?);

    Ok(())
}

...
}